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Archive for the ‘Astronomy’ Category

For near 400 years after Galilee and Newton invented initial telescopes, the image quality was improve through better optical quality of lenses and mirror, better polishing and coating techniques, and advanced optical design. For instance none of the present day professional telescopes are either Newtonian or Galilean. The root mean square (rms) fluctuation of the deviation in the optical surface compared to what it was supposed to be is of the order of a small fraction of the optical wavelength, say 20 nm or so. Achieving such a fine optical surface is challenging by itself. Nonetheless, the final spatial resolution of large ground-based telescopes are ALWAYS governed by the turbulence in the atmosphere, known as seeing.

What is seeing?

Seeing is the collective effect of distortions in the wavefront passing through the earth atmosphere. It causes blurring, image motion, … resulting in a smeared spatial resolution of the order of one or two arc second (1 radian = 206265 arc second). The physical mechanism behind seeing is the turbulence in the atmosphere driven by the temperature gradient which generates the convection cells. There are turbulence in day and night, and in low altitudes and high altitudes. A good fraction of the seeing is due to ground-layer turbulence, which plays role of the boundary condition to the atmosphere. It means the first say 100 m above the ground generates a significant fraction of the seeing. The famous blinking of stars at night sky is solely due to seeing: the stellar size is way much smaller than the seeing limit, therefore the intensity fluctuates. In contrast most of the planets have a large angular diameter of ten or more arc seconds and do not twinkle.

The theoretical resolution of a telescope is estimated by the Rayleigh criteria, and is about 1.22 λ/D, where λ is the wavelength and D the diameter of the telescope objective (both in meter). For a two meter telescope, the theoretical resolution is about 0.07 arc second, way smaller than say one arc second, the seeing limit for a lucky observer. The seeing frustrated many astronomers through decades. Even amateur astronomers experienced a watershed effect when they observe the Moon on high magnification with small telescopes. It is like watching the Moon through a layer of water.

 

A passive approach is to build telescopes at high altitudes to skip a significant fraction of the earth atmosphere, like the Keck or VLT telescopes. At a height of 5000m above the see level, about half of the atmosphere is “gone”. The atmosphere, however, extends over a hundred kilometer or so. To completely eliminate this effect, one has to launch the telescope to the low-earth orbit like the famous Hubble space telescope or the upcoming James Webb telescope.

 

The Adaptive Optics

A breakthrough emerged in 80s when a correlation tracker was first employed in astronomical telescopes. Although it did not sharpen the unshared images, it did fix the location of stars in the focal plane. The correlation tracker used the cross-correlation of the current image of a lock point (a bright star used as a target) with the image it has recorded just a millisecond earlier. The difference was then converted to a voltage following the calibration scheme. A tip/tilt mirror then apply the correction in a closed-loop system such then before the seeing modifies the location of the star, the image was displaced to the “correct” position. To achieve this operation, the correction speed should exceed the seeing frequency which is about 100 Hz. As a result, kHz systems were used in correlation trackers.

The adaptive optics is the natural successor of the correlation trackers. It employed a deformable mirror to correct the optical aberration of the wavefront. A costly deformable mirror is like a flat mirror in the first glance. It consists of several ten or hundred small mirrors, each controlled via a few actuators from behind. The joint action of all the small mirrors is to form the deformable mirror to correct the applied aberration to the wavefront and “undo” all those perturbations. It is a challenging task both from manufacturing and from computation point of view. One needs a dedicated mid-size machine to close the loop at a frequency much higher than the seeing frequency. The adaptive optics can correct several ten or more modes of aberration like defocus, coma, and astigmatism. As a result, the AO-corrected images gain a lot of sharpness and contrast compared to a standard telescope without AO.

You can imagine that the AO business is not in the realm of amateur astronomy. There are, however, tip/tipt systems to fix the image movement which can be purchased like the one SBIG offers. I do not think that anytime soon an AO can be realized in a mid-size amateur telescope. Their implementation for the large professional telescope is a must, I would say. The multi million Euro cost of the AO systems impeded their installation on many aging and brand-new telescopes.

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Unlike the Venus transit which is a rare event, there is a Mercury transit every 7.5 years (on average). Between 1601 and 2400, there are only 14 Venus transit. If you have not seen the last one on June 06, 2012, it is too late  since the next Venus transit occurs on Dec 11, 2117 !! Therefore, we should focus on the Mercury transit.

The next transit of mercury occurs on May 09, 2016. It starts at about 11:12 UT and ends on 18:42 UT. The transit is visible in most of Asia, Europe, Africa, and America. Note that the apparent size of the solar disk is about half a degree while the apparent size of mercury disk is only 8 arc seconds (1 degree = 60 arc minute = 3600 arc second).

The next mercury transits in this century are the followings (time in UT):

Date                    start           max          end

Nov  13, 2032      06:41         08:54      11:07

Nov 07, 2039       07:17         08:46       10:15

May 07, 2049       11:03         14:24       17:44

Nov 09, 2052       23:53         02:29       05:06

May 10, 2062       18:16         21:36       00:57

Nov 11, 2065        17:24         20:06      22:48

Nov 14, 2078        11:42         13:41      15:39

Nov 07, 2085        11:42         13:34      15:26

May 08, 2095        17:20         21:05      00:50

Nov 10, 2098        04:35         07:16      09:57

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I have used the famous Losmandy G-11 mount for a few years. It is a super heavy mount. You need quiet a bit of force to move it around. The mount was serviced recently and with a rough polar alignment, it allowed us to have exposures of up to five minutes at a focal length of 300 mm.

close-up view of Losmandy G11 mount.

close-up view of Losmandy G-11 mount.

The Losmandy G11 mount.

The Losmandy G-11 mount.

The ball-head to connect DSLR cameras.

The ball head to connect DSLR cameras.

The ball head allows you to point the camera to any direction of the sky very easily. Depending on the weight of the camera and lens, you should think of a ball which has a diameter of at least 30-40mm for a 5 kg load.

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Questar 8 inch (old) telescope and the Losmandy G-11 mount.

Questar 8 inch (old) telescope and the Losmandy G-11 mount.

The above image shows preparation for an observing session after a busy observing day. The telescope was pretty old but good enough to see the Venus-Jupiter conjuction on June 30, 2015.

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In an earlier post a while ago, I discussed about possibility to have a very bright comet this November/December. The updates are mostly disappointing as comet ISON does not perform the best expected. Alan Mac Robert from Sky and Telescope reviews the status of this comet recently and provided realistic estimated for expected brightening:

It can still be cached by small telescopes. However, the chance of having a bright (naked-eye) comet like Hale-Bopp is not significant.

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Discovered a few weeks ago, comet C/2012 S1  is predicted to be the brightest comet in the last few centuries ! Some people already called it a dream comet. I think many people still remember spectacular shows of Comet Hyakutake and  Hale-Bop. I have observed both when I was a bachelor student. But this new comet is predicted to be shortly as bright as full Moon. In the nearest distance to the Earth, it will be about 0.4 AU away from us, comparable to the great comet of 1680.

The great comet of 1680

However, I am concerned if we can ever watch this comet that spectacular. The nearest passage on 28 November 2013, it has a distance of about 1.8 million kilometers from the solar center (twice of the great comet of 1680). Considering the solar radius of about 695,000 km, that means it will be at a distance of about two solar radii from the solar surface. It is well “in” the solar corona.. Well, sungrazing comets survive even closer distance from the sun in perihelion. Lets see  if it can survive this dramatic passage.

NASA JPL predicted the following ephemeris for this comet. The table lists the date, right ascension and declination, as well as the apparent visual magnitude of the comet:

*************************************************************
Date                             R.A.             DEC                      MAG
*************************************************************
2012-Oct-01      08 16 15.64    +27 48 11.7           17.98
2012-Nov-01     08 21 30.69   +28 07 20.5           17.44
2012-Dec-01     08 14 29.76    +29 10 23.0           16.87
2013-Jan-01     07 51 24.41    +30 43 46.2           16.30
2013-Feb-01     07 17 30.61    +31 43 49.6           15.84
2013-Mar-01    06 50 55.54    +31 32 54.6          15.54
2013-Apr-01     06 37 34.44    +30 34 47.7          15.23
2013-May-01    06 41 38.71    +29 27 23.0         14.88
2013-Jun-01     06 59 16.67    +28 14 15.3          14.37
2013-Jul-01      07 25 33.62    +26 50 47.2         13.67
2013-Aug-01     07 59 58.82    +24 55 45.5         12.68
2013-Sep-01     08 41 49.95    +22 07 43.3         11.28
2013-Oct-01     09 34 32.27    +17 37 46.8          9.26
2013-Nov-01     11 12 17.58    +06 22 36.3         5.64
2013-Nov-01     11 12 17.58    +06 22 36.3         5.64
2013-Nov-11     12 16 17.67    -02 06 57.1          3.71
2013-Nov-21     14 02 19.97    -14 55 26.6         0.73
2013-Dec-01     16 19 20.89    -14 02 53.8          n.a.
2013-Dec-11     16 10 33.49    +05 18 36.2         1.42
2013-Dec-21     16 13 52.09    +31 55 14.6         2.76
2013-Dec-31     16 35 13.15    +67 12 33.9         3.89
2014-Jan-01     16 40 39.24    +70 35 30.0          4.02
2014-Feb-01     04 13 57.65    +57 18 56.9          8.07

Please note that the early prediction of comet brightness is usually uncertain due to various effects, e.g. the planetary tidal force causing new orbital parameters, fragmentation, etc. At the moment, the comet is so far away that there is no clear idea about the diameter of the comet nucleus. Hence, the super bright comet C/2012 S1 should be quoted with care. Indeed, JPL quoted that the orbit is probably very poorly determined. I hope it will be at least visible to the naked eye.

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Milkyway

This photo, captured on Sep 06, 2007 from La Palma, shows also the Sagittarius and Scorpion constellations and the milky way. The open cluster M7 is clearly seen. The telescope in the background is the GTC telescope.

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